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doi: 10.1128/mBio.00129-10

+ Author Affiliations

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* Present address: Vanja Klepac-Ceraj, Applied Molecular Photomedicine Laboratory, the Forsyth Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Hilary K. Schiffer, Biomedical Graduate Studies Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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ABSTRACT

The nose and throat are important sites of pathogen colonization, yet the microbiota of both is relatively unexplored by culture-independent approaches. We examined the bacterial microbiota of the nostril and posterior wall of the oropharynx from seven healthy adults using two culture-independent methods, a 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. While the bacterial microbiota of the oropharynx was richer than that of the nostril, the oropharyngeal microbiota varied less among participants than did nostril microbiota. A few phyla accounted for the majority of the bacteria detected at each site: Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the nostril and Firmicutes , Proteobacteria , and Bacteroidetes in the oropharynx. Compared to culture-independent surveys of microbiota from other body sites, the microbiota of the nostril and oropharynx show distinct phylum-level distribution patterns, supporting niche-specific colonization at discrete anatomical sites. In the nostril, the distribution of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes was reminiscent of that of skin, though Proteobacteria were much less prevalent. The distribution of Firmicutes , Proteobacteria , and Bacteroidetes in the oropharynx was most similar to that in saliva, with more Proteobacteria than in the distal esophagus or mouth. While Firmicutes were prevalent at both sites, distinct families within this phylum dominated numerically in each. At both sites there was an inverse correlation between the prevalences of Firmicutes and another phylum: in the oropharynx, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria , and in the nostril, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria . In the nostril, this inverse correlation existed between the Firmicutes family Staphylococcaceae and Actinobacteria families, suggesting potential antagonism between these groups.

IMPORTANCE The human nose and throat, though connected, contain distinct niches that are important sites of colonization by pathogenic bacteria. For many of these pathogens, colonization increases the risk of infection. Most research on the microbiota of nose and throat habitats has focused on carriage of one or a few pathogens. We hypothesized that increased knowledge of the composition of the complex bacterial communities in which these pathogens reside would provide new insights into why some individuals become colonized with pathogens, while others do not. Indeed, in the nostril microbiota of participants, there was an inverse correlation between the prevalences of the Staphylococcaceae family ( Firmicutes ), whose members include important pathogens, and the Corynebacteriaceae and Propionibacteriaceae families (both Actinobacteria ), whose members are more commonly benign commensals. An improved understanding of competitive bacterial colonization will increase our ability to define predispositions to pathogen carriage at these sites and the subsequent risk of infection.

Fig 5. Optimization of the basic number (right) and the position of NORs (left) in Cophomantini on a condensed phylogenetic hypothesis resulting from the analyses of Faivovich et al. [ 21 ] and Duellman et al. [ 7 ].

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192861.g005

Hyloscirtus

In pairs 1–2, 6, 8–10 were metacentric, pairs 3–5 submetacentric, and pair 7 was telocentric. In the other two species, pairs 1, 2, 9–11 were metacentric, pairs 3, 5, and 6 submetacentric, and pair 4 was subtelocentric. In . pair 7 was metacentric, pair 8 submetacentric, and pair 12 metacentric, while in . , these pairs were submetacentric, metacentric, and telocentric, respectively.

NORs were detected in the terminal regions of pair 1p in , pair 4p in . , and pair 4q in . ( Comfortable Sale Online Free Shipping Best Sale David Yurman Cable Classics sterling silver amp; 14kt yellow gold accented cuff bracelet bDPQljD
). The karyotypes of these species showed heterochromatic C-bands in most centromeres, interstitially in 1q and 4p in . , and in 6p in . ( Fig 1D–1F ). GC-rich heterochromatin (DAPI-/CMA+) was present interstitially in pair 1, and in the centromeres of pairs 1, 3–5, 6, 8, 9 and 10 of . , in almost the complete arm of 6p in . , and in all centromeres in . . Heterochromatic DAPI+ bands were observed in . in proximal position on pairs 4p and 10p, terminally on pairs 3p, 6p6q and 8q, and in the centromeric region of pair 7, and in . , in a terminal position on pairs 1p1q, 2q, 4q, and 5q, and interstitially in pair 4q (Figs 1G–1L and 4 ).

An additional centromeric DAPI+ band was present in one of the homologues of chromosome pair 2 in males of (2Y). The presence of this heteromorphic band was present in males and absent in females, where in the latter, centromeres of both chromosomes of pair 2 showed a similar DAPI- pattern (2X). Thirty DAPI-stained metaphases were measured (15 of males and 15 of females), showing that chromosome 2Y was slightly smaller than chromosome 2X, although both elements are similar in shape ( S2 Table ).

Two different chromosome numbers were identified in this group. Boana cf. alfaroi , B . leucocheila , and B . multifasciata shared 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes ( Fig 2A–2C ), while B . almendarizae , B . calcarata , B . cf. lanciformis , B . heilprini , and B . raniceps presented 2n = 2x = 24 ( Ports V slogan shortsleeve Tshirt Deals For Sale Fashion Style Sale Online Buy Cheap Buy j8ewwHYdz
).

In Boana cf. alfaroi , B . leucocheila , and B . multifasciata pairs 1, 2, 8, 9 and 11 were metacentric, and pairs 3, 5, and 10 submetacentric. Chromosome pair 7 was submetacentric in B . cf. alfaroi and B . multifasciata , and metacentric in B . leucocheila . In B . multifasciata pairs 4 and 6 were subtelocentric, while in the two other species these pairs were submetacentric.

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